Prelims: Current events of national and international importance; General Science.
Mains: Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology; Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics.
What is 5G?
- 5G is the 5th generation mobile network. It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks.
- 5G enables a new kind of network that is designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together including machines, objects, and devices.
- 5G has higher performance and improved efficiency as it will deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra-low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience to more users. empower new user experiences and connect new industries.
- 5G is designed for forwarding compatibility i.e. the ability to flexibly support future services that are unknown today.
What are the previous generations of mobile networks?
- First generation – 1G, the 1980s: 1G delivered analog voices
- Second generation – 2G, Early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access).
- Third generation – 3G,Early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000).
- Fourth generation – 4G LTE, the 2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.
Who invented /owns 5G?
- No one company or person owns 5G, but several companies within the mobile ecosystem are contributing to bringing 5G to life.
What underlying technologies make up 5G?
- 5G is based on OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing), a method of modulating a digital signal across several different channels to reduce interference.
- 5G uses the 5G NR air interface alongside OFDM principles.
- 5G uses wider bandwidth technologies such as sub-6 GHz and mmWave.
How is 5G better than 4G?
There are several reasons that 5G will be better than 4G:
- 5G is faster than 4G:5G can be significantly faster than 4G, delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates.
- 5G has more capacity than 4G:5G is designed to support a 100x increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency.
- 5G has significantly lower latency than 4G:5G has significantly lower latency to deliver more instantaneous, real-time access: a 10x decrease in end-to-end latency down to 1ms.
- 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G: While 4G LTE focused on delivering much faster mobile broadband services than 3G, 5G is designed to be a unified, more capable platform that not only elevates mobile broadband experiences but also supports new services such as mission-critical communications and the massive IoT. 5G can also natively support all spectrum types (licensed, shared, unlicensed) and bands (low, mid, high), a wide range of deployment models (from traditional macro-cells to hotspots), and new ways to interconnect (such as device-to-device and multi-hop mesh).
- 5G uses spectrum better than 4G:5G is also designed to get the most out of every bit of spectrum across a wide array of available spectrum regulatory paradigms and bands—from low bands below 1 GHz to mid bands from 1 GHz to 6 GHz, to high bands known as millimeter wave (mmWave)
Where is 5G being used?
5G is used across three main types of connected services, including enhanced mobile broadband, mission-critical communications, and the massive IoT.
- Enhanced mobile broadband:5G mobile technology can usher in new immersive experiences such as VR and AR with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and lower cost-per-bit.
- Mission-critical communications:5G can enable new services that can transform industries with ultra-reliable, available, low-latency links like remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures.
- Massive Internet of Things(IoT): 5G is meant to seamlessly connect a massive number of embedded sensors in virtually everything through the ability to scale down in data rates, power, and mobility—providing extremely lean and low-cost connectivity solutions.
Sources: The Hindu, Qualcomm, PWC, Business Standard, Tulane University website.
1. The Hindu: https://bit.ly/3RxhItm, https://bit.ly/3DcrZXl
2. Qualcomm: https://bit.ly/3cXxuif
3. PWC: https://pwc.to/3eEnUkM
4. Business Standard:https://bit.ly/3TRow6N
5. Tulane University website: https://bit.ly/3RKVKTa