18 Sep 2023 Hindi Diwas
This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “Hindi Diwas”. This topic has relevance in the “Polity and Governance” section of the UPSC CSE exam.
When is Hindi Diwas celebrated?
What is the Munshi Ayyangar Formula?
GS2: Polity and Governance
Why in the news?
On Thursday, September 14, 2023, the Prime Minister extended his greetings on ‘Hindi Diwas,’ an annual observance promoting the Hindi language.
- Each year on September 14, India observes Hindi Diwas, a day that marks the adoption of Hindi as the official language of the country.
- On this day in 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India recognised and adopted Hindi—an Indo-Aryan language written in the Devanagari script—as the official language.
- The celebration of Hindi Diwas aims to promote and create awareness about the importance of the Hindi language in India’s cultural identity. It serves as a reminder of the linguistic diversity and cultural richness of the country.
- Hindi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and plays a significant role as the Official language.
Hindi – the Official Language of India
- The Constituent Assembly of India, post-independence, chose Hindi as the country’s official language after extensive discussion spanning three days.
- The choice was influenced by several considerations, including script and numeral choice. The languages considered for official status included Hindustani (with Urdu elements) and Sanskrit.
The Munshi-Ayyangar Formula
- To find a middle ground, the Munshi-Ayyangar formula, named after members of the Drafting Committee, K M Munshi and N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar, was embraced as a compromise solution.
- As per Article 343 of the Constitution, based on this formula, the official language of India would be Hindi in Devanagari script, while the numerals used would follow an international form of Indian numerals.
Continuation of English and the Official Languages Act
- Despite the above clause, the Constitution allowed the use of English for all official union purposes for 15 years post-adoption.
- After that, protests erupted due to fears of Hindi imposition. In light of this reaction, the Centre maintained English as an official language alongside Hindi under the Official Languages Act, of 1963.
Debates in the Constituent Assembly
|Speaker||Language Proposal||Key Points|
|RV Dhulekar||Hindi as a National Language||Advocated for Hindi as national and official language.|
|Disagreed with the 15-year transition delay.|
|Urged supporters to face opposition from English and Hindustani advocates.|
|Frank Anthony||Retain English||Argued against Hindi as the sole official language.|
|Called for resistance against British influence on the English language.|
|Pandit Lakshmi Kanta Maitra||Sanskrit as National Language||Proposed Sanskrit as the national and official language due to its cultural and historical significance.|
|Qazi Syed Karimuddin||Promotion of Hindustani||Advocated for Hindustani as it was accessible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers.|
|TA Ramalingam Chettiar||Hindi Can’t be National Language||Highlighted that Hindi’s selection was based on its population, not superiority.|
|Stressed that India’s regions have their own native languages, challenging Hindi’s national status.|
Committee of Parliament on Official Language
The Rajbhasha Committee, also known as the Committee of Parliament on Official Languages, was created under the Official Languages Act of 1963 to assess how Hindi is used for official purposes.
The Constituent Assembly’s decision on the official language was a vital turning point in India’s linguistic journey, representing diverse viewpoints. Despite the initial choice of Hindi and subsequent adjustments to include English, the debate continues on India’s official and national languages, reflecting the rich diversity of the country.
Q1. Examine the statements and answer the questions according to the instructions given below:
Statement 1: Hindi Diwas is celebrated on September 18.
Statement 2: On Hindi Diwas Day in 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India recognized and adopted Hind as the official language.
(a) Statement 1 is true, statement -2 is true; statement 2 is the correct explanation for statement 1.
(b)Statement 1 is true, statement 2 is true; statement 2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is true, and statement 2 is false.
(d) Statement 1 is false, and Statement 2 is true.
Q2. Consider the following:
- As per Article 343 of the Constitution, based on the Rao- Manmohan formula.
- The constitution allowed the use of English for all official union purposes for 99 years post-adoption.
- Centre maintained English as an official language alongside Hindi under the Constitution of India.
How many of the abovementioned statements are correct?
(a) Only one
(b) Only two
(c) All three
Q3. Discuss the historical significance of Hindi Diwas in India, highlighting the process and factors that led to the adopting of Hindi as the official language.