Human-wildlife conflict

Human-wildlife conflict


  • Recently, the Minister of State for Forest, Environment and Climate Change informed in the Lok Sabha that the incidents of human-wildlife conflicts have increased.

Human-wildlife conflict

  • Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) refers to conflicts when the presence or behavior of wildlife causes actual or direct threats to human interests or needs, resulting in negative effects on people, animals, resources and habitat.


  • Habitat loss.
  • Increase in the population of wild animals.
  • Changing cropping patterns that attract wild animals to the field.
  • Movement of wild animals from forest area to human-dominated areas for food and fodder.
  • Movement of humans towards forests for illegal collection of forest produce.
  • Habitat degradation due to growth of invasive alien species etc.


  • Losing life.
  • Injuries to both animals and humans.
  • Damage to crops and agricultural land.
  • Increase in violence against animals.

Related data:

  • Between 2018-19 and 2020-21, 222 elephants died of electrocution across the country.
  • Apart from this, 29 tigers were killed due to poaching between the year 2019 and 2021, while the deaths of 197 tigers are being investigated.
  • Elephants killed 1,579 humans in three years during human-to-animal conflicts – 585 in 2019-20, 461 in 2020-21 and 533 in 2021-22.
  • Odisha tops with 332 deaths, followed by Jharkhand with 291 and West Bengal with 240.
  • Whereas between 2019 and 2021, tigers killed 125 humans in the reserve.
  • Nearly half of these deaths have occurred in Maharashtra.

Initiatives taken to deal with the conflict:

 Advice for managing human-wildlife conflict (HWC):

  • It is issued by the Standing Committee of National Board for Wildlife (SC-NBWL).

Empowering Gram Panchayats:

  • The advisory envisages empowering village panchayats to deal with problematic wild animals as per the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Providing Insurance:

  • Using add-on coverage under Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana for compensation for crop damage due to HWC.

 Growing Fodder:

  • It is envisaged to increase the fodder and water sources within the forest areas.

Taking proactive measures:

  • Prescribing inter-departmental committees at local/state level, adoption of early warning system, creation of barriers, dedicated circle-wise control room with toll-free hotline numbers, identification of hotspots etc.

 Providing immediate relief:

  • Payment of a part of the ex-gratia amount as interim relief to the victim/family within 24 hours of the incident.

Yojna ias daily current affairs eng med 29th July

No Comments

Post A Comment