Important Schemes and Programmes

Important Schemes and Programmes


Brief Description

  • India recently celebrated its 75th Independence Day on August 15, 2021.
  • ‘Nation First, Always First’ is the theme of India’s 75th Independence Day celebrations.
  • The Prime Minister of India while addressing the nation mentioned various schemes and programmes to highlight the efforts taken by the government in recent times.
  • We have tried to compile various key points of the PM Independence day address. A quick revision will help the aspirants to solve the question in UPSC CSE-2021 Preliminary Examination.


World’s Largest Vaccination Program

  • India began the “World’s Largest Vaccination Program” on January 16, 2021 in the fight against COVID-19 , with the approval of two made-in-India COVID-19 vaccines; Covishield and Covaxin .
  • Covaxin is an inactivated vaccine whereas Covishield is a live vaccine.
  • The government has launched the Co-WIN application for the registration of the citizens and to generate digital certificates of vaccination.


Co-WIN and Digital Certificates

  • Co-WIN is a cloud-based IT platform which handles the minute details for India’s Covid-19 immunisation programme, including registering beneficiaries, allocating vaccination centres, sending text messages with the name of their vaccinator to beneficiaries and live monitoring of vials in cold storage.
  • The platform is owned by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHWA).
  • MeitY along with the National Informatic center are responsible for handling the tech infrastructure of the app.


Amrit Kaal

  • In his 75th Independence day speech, the Prime Minister of India referred to the period of next 25 years as the Amrit Kaal for India and her citizens.


The purpose of Amrit Kaal is:

  • To better the lives of citizens
  • Lessen the development divide between villages and city
  • Reduce government interference in people’s lives and
  • Have the latest technology so that India is not behind any country in the world.


  • India started with the spirit of ‘SabkaSaath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwas’ and now SabkaPrayas (collaborative effort of all) is added as a very important aspect for the achievement of India’s goals for development.


Ujjwala 2.0 

  • Recently, the second phase of Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) or Ujjwala 2.0 Scheme was launched.

  • PMUY-I was launched in May 2016 to provide LPG connections to poor households.
  • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.
  • It is aimed to provide maximum benefit to the migrants who live in other states and find it difficult to submit address proof.
  • A financial support of Rs 1600 for each LPG connection will be provided to the BPL households.
  • An additional 10 million LPG connections will be provided to the beneficiaries.


Ayushman Bharat Pradhan mantri jan Aushadhi yojna (ABPM-JAY)

  • AB PM-JAY offers a sum insured of Rs.5 lakh per family for secondary as well as tertiary care.
  • The Health Benefit Packages cover surgery, medical and day care treatments, cost of medicines and diagnostics.
  • The beneficiaries are identified by latest 


Socio-Economic and Caste Census data

  • The National Health Authority (NHA) is the nodal agency for the implementation of PM-JAY.



  • 60:40 for all states and UTs with their own legislature
  • 90:10 in Northeast states and Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal and Uttarakhand
  • 100% Central funding for UTs without legislature.


 Pradhan mantri jan aushadhi Pariyojna PMBJP

  •  PMBJP was launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals in 2008 under the name Jan Aushadhi Campaign.
  • The campaign was revamped as PMBJP in 2015-16.
  •  Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India (BPPI) (Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers) is the implementation agency for PMBJP.
  • BPPI has also developed the Janaushadhi Sugam Application.
  • Jan Aushadhi Kendras: The BPPI also supports Janaushadhi Kendras as a part of PMBJP where quality generic medicines are made available to all.
  • The Kendras can be set up by doctors, pharmacists, entrepreneurs, Self Help Groups, NGOs etc. at any suitable place or outside the hospital premises.



  • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched PM SVANidhi, for providing affordable loans to street vendors.
  • It was announced as a part of the Economic Stimulus-II under the Atmanirbhar Bharat abhiyan.
  • The vendors can avail a collateral-free, working capital loan of up to Rs. 10,000, which is repayable in monthly instalments within a year.
  • There is no penalty on early repayment of loan.
  • Microfinance institutions, Non banking financial companies, Self help groups are the lending institutions under the scheme.
  • It is for the first time that these institutions have been allowed in a scheme for the urban poor due to their ground level presence and proximity to them.


Jal Jeevan Mission

  • The mission envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTCs) by 2024.
  • The Jal Shakti Ministry is the nodal ministry for the implementation of the scheme.
  • The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and states is 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States, 50:50 for other states, and 100% for Union Territories.
  • In 2020, Goa became the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ State in the country by successfully providing 100% FHTCs in the rural areas.



  • It refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. It addresses 3 broad groups of conditions:

Undernutrition: includes wasting (low weight-for-height), stunting (low height-for-age) and underweight (low weight-for-age).

Micronutrient-related malnutrition: micronutrient (important vitamins and minerals) deficiencies or excess.

Overweight: obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers).

Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM): The World Health Organization (WHO) defines Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) by very low weight-for-height or a mid-upper arm circumference less than 115 mm, or by the presence of nutritional oedema.


Delimitation commission  in Jammu and Kashmir

  • Delimitation is the act of fixing or redrawing the limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies (Assembly or Lok Sabha seat) in a country or a province having a legislative body.
  • It is carried out by an independent high-powered panel known as the Delimitation Commission whose orders cannot be questioned by any court.
  • It is appointed by the President of India and works in collaboration with the Election Commission of India.
  • Under Article 82 of the Indian Constitution, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.
  • Under Article 170, States also get divided into territorial constituencies as per Delimitation Act after every Census.




Blue Economy

  • The Blue Economy encourages better stewardship of the ocean or ‘blue’ resources.
  • The concept was introduced by Gunter Pauli in 2010.
  • It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and ocean ecosystem health.

Blue economy covers three economic forms:

  • Economy coping with global water crisis
  • Innovative development economy
  • Development of marine economy


 India’s Initiatives for Blue Economy:


  • Sagarmala Project
  • O-SMART Scheme
  • Integrated coastal zone management programme
  • National Fisheries Policy for promoting ‘Blue Growth Initiative’


Deep Ocean Mission

  • In June 2021, the proposal of the Deep Ocean Mission was approved by the  Cabinet Committee on Economic affairs.
  • The Ministry of Earth Sciences is the nodal ministry implementing the mission.
  • It will be a mission mode project to support the Blue economy Initiatives of the Government of India.
  • India will become the sixth country in the world to have the technology and expertise needed for such missions.
  • The technology and expertise needed in such missions is now available with only five countries – US, Russia, France, Japan and China.
  • India will now be the sixth country to have it.


Major Components:

  • Development of Technologies for Deep Sea Mining, and Manned Submersible.
  •  Development of Ocean Climate Change Advisory Services.
  • Technological Innovations for Exploration and Conservation of Deep-sea Biodiversity.
  • Bio-prospecting of deep sea flora and fauna including microbes and studies on sustainable utilization of deep sea bio-resources will be the main focus.
  • Deep Ocean Survey and Exploration.
  • Energy and Freshwater from the Ocean.
  • Advanced Marine Station for Ocean Biology.


Cooperative Movement in India

  • The Cooperative Movement in India began in the last quarter of the 19th century.

  • Several informal cooperatives existed by the names of Devarai, Chit Funds, Kuries, Bhishies, Phads etc.
  • The first Cooperative Credit Societies Act was passed in 1904 and was later amended by the Cooperative Societies Act, 1912.
  • Mahatma Gandhi introduced the ‘Phoenix Settlement’ as a cooperative in a socialistic pattern and the Tolstoy Farm as a rehabilitation cooperative settlement.
  • After independence, cooperatives became an integral part of Five-Year Plans (FYPs).


Constitutional Provisions:

  • The Constitution (97th Amendment) Act, 2011 added a new Part IXB right after Part IXA (Municipals) regarding the cooperatives working in India.
  • The word “cooperatives” was added after “unions and associations” in Article 19(1)(c) under Part III of the Constitution.
  • This enables all the citizens to form cooperatives by giving it the status of Fundamental Rights of citizens.
  • A new Article 43B was added in the Directive Principles of State Policy (Part IV) regarding the “promotion of cooperative societies”.


Successful Cooperatives in India:

  • National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC)
  • National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India (NAFED),
  • Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative
  • AMUL
  • Punjab and Maharashtra cooperative (PMC) Bank




  • It is a business model that lets firms and individuals buy and sell things over the Internet.
  • India’s e-commerce revenue is growing at an annual rate of 51%, the highest in the world.
  • The Indian e-commerce market is expected to grow to US$ 200 billion by 2026.


Government Initiatives regarding e-Commerce in India:

  • Draft E-Commerce rule 2021
  •  RBI permitted interoperability among Prepaid Payment Instruments (PPIs) such as digital wallets
  • Government e-Marketplace (GeM)



Kisan Credit Card (KCC)

  • The scheme was introduced to provide adequate and timely credit support to the farmers for their cultivation and agricultural purchases.
  • KCC covers post-harvest expenses, consumption requirements of farmer households, investment credit requirements for agriculture and allied activities etc.
  • KCC is implemented by Commercial Banks, RRBs, Small Finance Banks and Cooperatives.
  • The KCC saturation campaign provides KCC loans to farmers who have not been given such loans.
  • It comes with an ATM-enabled RuPay debit card for any number of drawals within the limit.


Farmer Producer Organizations

  • An FPO is a collectivisation of (especially) small and marginal farmers to form an effective alliance to address the challenges of agriculture.
  • The resource agencies like NABARD promote and nurture FPOs.
  • The Formation & Promotion of 10,000 FPOs is a Central Sector Scheme launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • It provides financial assistance of up to Rs. 18.00 lakh per FPO for a period of 3 years.




  • Under the scheme, the Centre transfers an amount of Rs 6,000 per year directly into the bank accounts of all landholding farmers.
  • It is a Central Sector Scheme and is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • The beneficiary identification is done by the State / UT Governments.
  • PM-KISAN Mobile App: It is developed and designed by the National Informatic center in collaboration with the MeitY.
  • It facilitates the farmers to view the status of their application and check the history of credits to their bank accounts.


Kisan Rails

  • Kisan Rails are the first ever multi commodity trains.
  • The Indian Railways introduced the first Kisan Rail from Devlali (Maharashtra) to Danapur (Bihar).
  • These trains with refrigerated coaches will help in bringing perishable agricultural products like vegetables, fruits to the market in a short period of time.
  • It is a step towards realising the goal of Doubling Farmers’ Income by 2022.



  • SVAMITVA stands for Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas.
  • It is a Central Sector Scheme.
  • It aims to provide an integrated property validation solution for rural India.
  • It is a scheme for mapping the land parcels in rural inhabited areas using drone technology and Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS).
  • The Ministry of Panchayati Raj (MoPR) is the nodal ministry.
  • The Survey of India is the Technology Implementation Agency.



UDAN 4.1


  • Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN) was launched as a regional connectivity scheme in 2016.
  • It aims to create affordable yet economically viable and profitable flights on regional routes so that flying becomes affordable to the common man even in small towns.
  • UDAN 4.1 focuses on connecting smaller airports, along with special helicopter and seaplane routes.
  • It is an initiative of the Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA).



Gati Shakti

  • It is one of the initiatives announced at the 75th Independence day by the Prime Minister of India.
  • Gati Shakti is a Rs.100 lakh-crore project for developing ‘holistic infrastructure’.
  • It will help raise the global profile of local manufacturers and help them compete with their counterparts worldwide.
  • It also raises possibilities of new future economic zones.
  • It will be a source of employment opportunities for the youth in future.


INS Vikrant:

  • INS Vikrant, likely to be commissioned in 2022, is India’s first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC).
  • Currently, India has only one aircraft carrier, the Russian-origin INS Vikramaditya.
  • The combat capability, reach and versatility of the aircraft carrier will add formidable capabilities in the defence in the country and help secure India’s interests in the maritime domain.


Gaganyaan Mission

  • Gaganyaan is a mission by ISRO in which three flights (two unmanned, one manned) will be sent into orbit.
  • It will circle Earth at a low-Earth-Orbit.
  • The human spaceflight module of Gaganyaan will be launched after the second unmanned mission planned in 2022-23.
  • The manned mission will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman.
  • GSLV Mk III, will be used to launch Gaganyaan.


India’s Other Upcoming Projects:

  • Chandrayaan-3
  • Shukrayaan Mission


Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme

  • The Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme aims to give companies incentives on incremental sales from products manufactured in domestic units.
  • It also aims to encourage local companies to set up or expand existing manufacturing units.
  • The Scheme has also been approved for sectors such as automobiles, textiles, pharmaceuticals, IT hardware including laptops, mobile phones & telecom equipment, white goods, chemical cells, food processing etc.


National Education Policy, 2020

  • The NEP 2020 aims at making “India a global knowledge superpower”.
  • It is only the third major revamp of the framework of education in India since independence (after NEP 1968 AND 1986).
  • It replaces the current 10+2 system by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively.
  • Vocational Education to start from Class 6 with Internships.
  • Teaching up to at least Grade 5 to be in mother tongue/regional language.
  • By 2030, the minimum degree qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree.
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education to be raised to 50% by 2035.
  •  M.Phil courses will be discontinued and UG, PG and PhD level courses will be interdisciplinary.



Bru Agreement:

  • Bru or Reang is a community indigenous to Northeast India, living mostly in Tripura (as a PVTG), Mizoram and Assam.
  • In Mizoram, they have been targeted by groups that do not consider them indigenous to the state.
  • They fled Mizoram in 1997 and were accommodated in relief camps in Tripura.
  • In June 2018, Bru community leaders signed an agreement with the Centre and the two state governments, providing for repatriation in Mizoram.
  • But most camp residents rejected the terms of the agreement.
  • In Jan 2020, the same parties signed a quadripartite agreement as per which the Brus will now settle in Tripura.


Vehicle Scrap Policy

  • It was first announced in the Union Budget for 2021-2022.
  • It aims at reducing the population of old and defective vehicles, bringing down vehicular air pollutants, improving Road and vehicular Safety.
  • Old vehicles will have to pass a fitness test before re-registration and as per the policy government commercial vehicles more than 15 years old and private vehicles which are over 20 years old will be scrapped.


Ethanol Blending

  • Ethanol is one of the principal Biofuels, which is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration.
  • The Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP) aims at blending ethanol with petrol, thereby bringing it under the category of biofuels and saving millions of dollars by cutting fuel imports and decreasing carbon emissions.
  • The Government of India has advanced the target for 20% ethanol blending in petrol (also called E20) to 2025 from 2030.
  • Currently, 8.5% of ethanol is blended with petrol in India.



National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

  •  NCBC has the authority to examine complaints and welfare measures regarding socially and educationally backward classes.
  • 102nd Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 provides constitutional status to the NCBC.
  • The members of NCBC are appointed by the President of India.
  • Article 340 deals with the need to, inter alia, identify those “socially and educationally backward classes”, understand the conditions of their backwardness, and make recommendations to remove the difficulties they face.


Atma-nirbhar Bharat AbhiyaN

  • It was announced in May, 2020 along with an economic stimulus package worth Rs 20 lakh crores for achieving the mission.
  • The Mission focuses on the importance of promoting “local” products.


The Mission would be based on five pillars namely:

  • Economy
  • Infrastructure
  • System
  • Vibrant Demography
  • Demand
  • The Mission is also expected to complement the ‘Make In India Initiative’ which intends to encourage manufacturing in India.


Mission Karmayogi 

  • Mission Karmayogi’ – the National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB) is aimed at building a future-ready civil service with the right attitude, skills and knowledge, aligned to the vision of New India.
  • The iGOT Karmayogi digital platform provides the content drawn from global best practices.
  • The scheme will cover 46 lakh central government employees, at all levels.
  • NPCSCB will be governed by the Prime Minister’s Human Resource Council, which will also include state Chief Ministers, Union Cabinet ministers, and experts.


National Hydrogen Energy Mission (NHM)

  • The Union Budget  for 2021-22  has announced a NHM that will draw up a road map for using hydrogen as an energy source.
  • It focusses on generation of hydrogen from green power resources.
  • It aims to link India’s growing renewable capacity with the hydrogen economy.
  • The usage of hydrogen will not only help India in achieving its emission goals under the Paris Agreement, but will also reduce import dependency on fossil fuels.


Food Fortification Scheme

  • Food fortification refers to deliberately increasing the content of essential micronutrients so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply.
  • The FSSAI operationalized the Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2016 for fortifying staples namely:
  • Wheat Flour and Rice (with Iron, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid)
  • Milk and Edible Oil (with Vitamins A and D)
  • Double Fortified Salt (with Iodine and Iron)
  • Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern Biotechnology


Examples of Biofortified crops:

  • Rice- CR DHAN 315 has excess zinc.
  • Wheat- HI 1633 rich in protein, iron and zinc.
  • Maize- Hybrid varieties enriched with lysine and tryptophan.
  • Madhuban Gajar


Poshan 2.0

  • The Ministry for Women and Child Development inaugurated Poshan 2.0 and urged all Aspirational Districts to establish a Poshan Vatika (nutrition garden) during the Nutrison Months (Poshan Maah).
  • It was announced in Union Budget 2021-22 by merging supplementary nutrition programmes and the Poshan Abhiyan.
  • Poshan Vatika will ensure supply of nutrition through organically home grown vegetables and fruits simultaneously ensuring that the soil must also remain healthy.


Aurobindo Ghosh

  •  Sri Aurobindo Ghosh was a philosopher, poet, and Indian nationalist who propounded the philosophy of divine life on earth through spiritual evolution.
  • From 1902 to 1910 Aurobindo partook in the struggle to free India and was known as a revolutionary nationalist.
  • He helped in establishing the Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta in 1902.
  • The Bande Mataram was an English language weekly newspaper published from Calcutta (now Kolkata) founded in 1905 by Bipin Chandra Pal and edited by Sri Aurobindo Ghosh.
  • He was arrested in connection with the Alipore Conspiracy Case or Alipore Bomb Case in 1908.
  • This was in the wake of the attempt to assassinate the Chief Presidency Magistrate Douglas Kingford by Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki.
  •  In 1910, he fled British India and found refuge in the French colony of Pondichéry where he devoted himself for the rest of his life to the development of his “integral” yoga.
  • He founded a community of spiritual seekers which took shape as the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in 1926.

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