Insurgency Urgency

Insurgency Urgency



Why in the News?


Recently, paramilitary and police forces dealt significant blows to the insurgents, resulting in the deaths of at least 29 Maoists in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh. This marked the most significant loss of Maoist lives in a single operation within the Bastar region. The operation was conducted collaboratively by a team comprising the DRG (District Reserve Guards) and BSF (Border Security Force).


Origin of Left-Wing Extremism


  • The term “Naxalism” or “Naxalite movement” originates from Naxalbari and has since been used to describe various leftist extremist movements across India. Left-wing extremism (LWE) in India has its roots in various historical, socio-economic, and political factors. One of the primary origins can be traced back to the Naxalbari uprising of 1967 in the state of West Bengal.
  • Over time, the movement spread to other states with significant rural poverty and tribal populations, such as Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Maharashtra.


Reasons Behind the Growth and Sustenance of LWE in India


  1. Poverty and unemployment: Poverty and unemployment are significant factors that contribute to the radicalization of individuals in affected regions. People from impoverished backgrounds often feel marginalized and exploited, leading them to seek alternative means of survival, such as joining LWE groups.
  2. Political grievances: The lack of political representation and voice for marginalized communities in some regions has led to feelings of alienation and resentment. This can result in the formation of LWE groups that promise to fight for the rights and aspirations of these communities.
  3. Social exclusion: Social exclusion due to caste, religion, or ethnicity can also contribute to the formation of LWE groups. People who feel socially excluded often seek to establish their dominance by engaging in violence and creating fear among the local population.

4. Failure of governance: Inadequate governance, corruption, and the inability of the state to address socio-economic disparities have led to disillusionment and alienation, particularly among tribal and rural communities.

  1. Influence of global terrorism: The rise of global terrorism and extremist ideologies has had a significant impact on the formation of LWE groups in India. The spread of extremist ideologies through the internet, recruitment by terrorist organizations, and the flow of funds and arms from neighboring countries have all contributed to the growth of LWE groups.
  2. Development deficit: In some remote and underdeveloped areas, the government’s inability to provide basic services like education, healthcare, and infrastructure development has led to a sense of hopelessness among the local population. This can result in the formation of LWE groups that promise to bring change and development to these areas.



Current Situation of Insurgency in India



  • As per the Ministry of Home Affairs, LWE impacts 90 districts across 10 states to differing extents. These states include Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana, and West Bengal. Among these, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Bihar bear the brunt of LWE activity, with these groups exhibiting significant influence and regularly engaging in assaults on both security personnel and civilians.
  • From 2004 to 2022, a total of 8625 individuals lost their lives due to LWE activities in various regions of India. The victims predominantly consist of tribal civilians who are frequently labeled as ‘Police informers’ before undergoing severe torture and ultimately being killed.


Initiatives taken by Government


Infrastructure Initiatives


  • Road Requirement Plan-I (RRP-I) for LWE affected areas: The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways is executing this initiative to enhance road connectivity in 34 districts affected by LWE across 8 states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh. The scheme aims to construct a total of 5,362 km of roads in these affected states, with 5,136 km of roads already completed.
  • LWE Mobile Tower Project: In order to enhance mobile connectivity in regions affected by LWE, the government sanctioned the installation of mobile towers in affected states on 20.08.2014. 
  • Aspirational District: The Ministry of Home Affairs has been assigned the responsibility of overseeing the Aspirational Districts program in 35 districts affected by LWE.


Development Initiatives

  • Integrated Tribal Development Programme: The government has initiated several programs such as the Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP) and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) to enhance infrastructure, create livelihood opportunities, and fulfill fundamental requirements such as education and healthcare in regions affected by LWE.
  • Skill development initiatives: The government offers training in skill development to young individuals residing in LWE-affected regions with the goal of enhancing their employability and diminishing their susceptibility to recruitment by Naxalite groups.
  • Encouragement of sustainable livelihoods: Programs such as Van Dhan Vikas Kendras and MGNREGA are designed to foster sustainable livelihood options for tribal communities through activities based in forests and rural employment opportunities.


Security Initiatives

  • Scheme of Fortified Police stations: As part of the initiative, 400 Fortified Police Stations have been built across 10 states affected by LWE. In total, 604 Fortified Police Stations have been established in these areas.
  • Smart Police: It is an acronym for Strategic Management & Alternative Response Tactics, entails the utilization of data-driven strategies by law enforcement agencies. Its objective is to enhance the effectiveness and precision of policing through the analysis of diverse data sources like crime statistics, public input, and social media. This approach informs decision-making processes and resource distribution, ultimately aiming to elevate the quality and efficiency of law enforcement efforts.
  • Creation of specialized task forces: Dedicated units such as Cobra Commandos and Greyhounds have been formed to conduct precise operations targeting Naxalite leaders and hideouts.


Way forward 


  • Intelligence gathering and surveillance: The government should invest in robust intelligence gathering and surveillance systems to monitor the activities of insurgents, gather information about their plans, and identify potential threats. 
  • Community engagement: The government should work with local communities to build trust and support. This can include implementing social programs, such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure development, to improve the living conditions of the population. 
  • Counter-narrative strategy: The government should work to counter the insurgents’ propaganda and messaging by developing a communication strategy that promotes positive narratives and values. This can include working with media outlets, influencers, and community leaders to spread information that highlights the benefits of peace and stability.
  • Disarmament and reintegration: The government should implement programs to disarm and demobilize insurgents, offering them opportunities for reintegration into society. 
  •  Long-term peacebuilding: The government should work towards building long-term peace and reconciliation in areas affected by insurgency. This can include supporting local initiatives that promote dialogue, tolerance, and understanding between different communities, as well as fostering economic and social development to reduce the appeal of insurgency.

Download Yojna daily current affairs eng med 19th April 2024


Prelims Based Question


Q1. Consider the following statements regarding PESA act,1996:

  1. It seeks to establish Democratic decentralization.
  2. It empowers the state government to override decisions taken by the Gram Sabha.

 Choose the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a). 1 Only

(b). 2 Only

(c). Both 1 and 2

(d). Neither 1 nor 2




Mains Based Question


Q1. Analyze the socio-economic and political factors that have contributed to the growth and sustenance of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) in India and Evaluate the effectiveness of government initiatives in addressing the challenges posed by LWE.


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