- Every year 29 July is observed as International Tiger Day (ITD) to promote the conservation of the striped cat as well as to advocate a global system to protect its natural habitats.
- ITD was established in the year 2010 at the St. Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia to raise awareness about the declining numbers of wild tigers, save them from extinction and encourage the work of tiger conservation.
- Annual wildlife monitoring results of cross-border wildlife conservation in Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam showed that there are 2.4 tigresses for every tiger.
Key facts about Tiger:
- Scientific name: Panthera tigris
- Indian subspecies: Panthera tigris tigris.
- It is found from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.
- It is the largest cat species and a member of the Panthera genus.
- Traditionally eight subspecies of tigers have been recognized, three of which are extinct.
- Bengal Tigers: Indian Subcontinent
- Caspian tiger: Central and West Asia through Turkey (extinct)
- Amur tigers: Russia and the Amur River region of China and North Korea
- Javan tiger: Java, Indonesia (extinct)
- South China Tiger: South Central China
- Bali tiger: Bali, Indonesia (extinct)
- Sumatran tiger: Sumatra, Indonesia
- Indo-Chinese Tiger: Continental South-East Asia.
- Habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching.
- Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule I
- International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List:
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wildlife and Flora (CITES): Appendix I
Tiger reserve in india
- Total count: 53
- Largest: Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Andhra Pradesh
- Smallest: Bor Tiger Reserve in Maharashtra
Status of tiger population in India
- According to the latest figures from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), currently the number of tigers in the forests across the world has increased from 3,726 to 5,578.
- Tiger populations are stable or increasing in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Russia and China.
- India is home to over 70% of the global tiger population.
- India achieved the target of doubling the tiger population in 2018 itself, 4 years ahead of the target year 2022 of the St. Petersburg Declaration on Tiger Conservation.
- According to the Tiger Census (2018), the number of tigers in India has increased to 2,967.
Importance of Tiger Conservation:
- Tiger conservation is a symbol of conservation of forests.
- The tiger is a unique animal that plays an important role in a health ecosystem and its diversity.
- It is a high consumer of food at the top of the food chain and keeps wild (mainly large mammal) populations under control.
- In this way the tiger helps to maintain a balance between the herbivorous animals by hunting and the vegetation on which they depend for food.
- The purpose of tiger conservation is not just to save a beautiful animal.
- It is also helpful in ensuring that we live longer because as a result of this protection we get ecological services like clean air, water, pollination, temperature regulation etc.
Related steps taken:
Project Tiger 1973:
- It is a centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) launched in the year 1973. It provides shelter to tigers in the national parks of the country.
National Tiger Conservation Authority:
- It is a statutory body under MoEFCC and was established in the year 2005 following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force.
Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS):
- The CA|TS is a set of different parameters that allow tiger sites to examine whether their management will lead to successful tiger conservation.