Kaziranga National Park – Today Current Affairs
- Recently, a case of poaching of world famous ‘Greater one-horned rhinoceros’ has come to the fore in Kaziranga National Park of Assam.
Today Current Affairs
- There are five species of rhinoceros – White and Black Rhinos in Africa, Greater one-horned rhinoceros in Asia, Java and Sumatran rhinoceros (Javan and Sumatran rhino) species.
Status on the IUCN Red List: The Hindu Analysis
- Black Rhino: Critically Endangered. The smaller of the two African species.
- White Rhino: Near danger or danger. Researchers have created an embryo of a northern white rhino using in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure.
- One Horned Rhinoceros:
- Java: Critically Endangered.
- Sumatran Rhino: Critically Endangered.
- Only one-horned rhinoceros is found in India.
- The one-horned rhinoceros (Indian rhinoceros) is the largest of the rhino species.
- This rhinoceros is identified by a single black horn and brown color with folds of skin.
- They mainly graze on grasses, leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruits and aquatic plants.
Today Current Affairs
Habitat: The Hindu Analysis
- This species is restricted to the Terai region of Indo-Nepal, northern West Bengal and Assam.
- Rhinos in India are mainly found in Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
- Assam has 2,640 rhinos in four protected areas (Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park).
- About 2,400 of these rhinos are in Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve.
Conservation status: The Hindu Analysis
- IUCN Red List:
- CITES: Appendix I (includes ‘endangered’ species that may be at greater risk if traded.)
- Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule-I
To risk: The Hindu Analysis
- Poaching for hornets
- Loss of Habitat
- Population density
- Decreasing Genetic Diversity
Conservation Efforts by India: The Hindu Analysis
- Five countries of the rhino range (India, Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia) have signed the New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos, 2019 for the conservation and protection of these species.
- Recently, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has started a project to create DNA profiles for all rhinos in the country.
- National Rhino Conservation Strategy: It was launched in the year 2019 to conserve one-horned rhinoceros.
- Indian Rhino Vision 2020: It was launched in the year 2005. The Indian Rhino Vision 2020 was an ambitious effort to increase the population of one-horned rhinoceros to at least 3,000 by the year 2020 spread across seven protected areas located in the Indian state of Assam.
- Kaziranga National Park was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the year 1985.
- It was declared a tiger reserve by the Government of India in 2006.