Oncolytic Virotherapy (OV) – Today Current Affairs
- Researchers in the US have developed a new method to improve cancer therapy in the form of oncolytic virotherapy (OV) that can destroy tumor cells while leaving the surrounding healthy tissue intact.
- Previously a monoclonal antibody trial was conducted in the United States, in which 12 patients were completely cured of rectal cancer without the need for surgery or chemotherapy.
Today Current Affairs
- Oncolytic viruses can kill cancer cells while keeping nearby healthy cells and tissues intact.
- Treatment in oncolytic virotherapy also exerts its effect by activating the antitumor immune response composed of immune cells such as natural malignant (NK) cells.
- Although sometimes they limit natural lethal oncolytic viruses, despite reasonable developments in the OV field in recent years, improvements are needed to address some of the challenges, including relatively weak therapeutic activity and means of effective systemic delivery.
Ideal Approach : The Hindu Analysis
- In this, a certain part of the gene, which indicates activation, is destroyed, as well as it enables the virus to replicate normal cells.
- Contains a new oncolytic virus called FusOn-H2, which is based on the herpes simplex 2 virus, (HSV-2), commonly known as genital herpes.
- The chimeric NK engager in FusOn-H2 that can enter tumor cells and engulf natural malignant cells, significantly enhancing the efficacy of virotherapy.
Cancer : The Hindu Analysis
- It is a large group of diseases that can start in almost any organ or tissue of the body, when abnormal cells grow uncontrollably and invade nearby parts of the body and/or spread to other organs for encroachment beyond its normal limits. The latter process is called metastasizing and is a major cause of death from cancer.
- Other common names for cancer are neoplasms and malignant tumors.
- Lung, prostate, colorectal, stomach and liver cancers are the most common cancers in men, while breast, colorectal, lung, cervical and thyroid cancers are most common in women.
Cancer burden : The Hindu Analysis
- Cancer is a chronic and non-communicable disease (NCD) worldwide, including in India, and is one of the leading causes of adult illness and death.
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and there were around 18 million cases globally in the year 2018, of which 1.5 million cases were in India alone.
Redressal : The Hindu Analysis
- Excluding key risk factors, 30-50% of cancer deaths are preventable.
- Major risk factors include tobacco, alcohol use, unbalanced diet, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, pollution, chronic infections, etc.
Remedy : The Hindu Analysis
- Cancer treatment options include surgery, cancer drugs or radiotherapy.
- Palliative care that focuses on improving the quality of life of patients and their families is an essential component of cancer care.
Initiatives to combat cancer : The Hindu Analysis
- National program for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, heart disease and stroke
- National Cancer Grid
- National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority
- International Cancer Research Institute
- National Cancer Awareness Day
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