PNS Tughril

PNS Tughril


  • PNS Tughril, was handed over by China the first Type 054A/P frigate (warship) to Pakistan.
  • PNS Tughril is the first of the four types of 054A/P warships being built for the Pakistan Navy.


  • The ship is technologically advanced and highly capable of achieving surface-to-surface, surface-to-air and underwater strikes apart from comprehensive surveillance capabilities.
  • The warship has world-class stealth capability and will not come in easy contact with any radar.
  • It also has long-range missiles and a state-of-the-art cannon capable of firing multiple rounds in a minute.
  • The warship is equipped with a state-of-the-art Battle Management System (BMS), which will enhance the combat capability of the Pakistani Navy manifold.
  • BMS basically establishes the link between the radar and the interceptor missile.

India’s concerns:

  • It will strengthen the capability of the Pakistani Navy to meet maritime challenges to ensure maritime defense in the Indian Ocean region.
  • It will become the mainstay of the Pakistan Navy’s fleet, strengthening the maritime defense capabilities of the Pakistani Navy.
  • In addition to advanced naval ships, China has partnered with the Pakistan Air Force to make JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft.
  • In addition to building its first military base in Djibouti in the Horn of Africa in the Indian Ocean region, China has gained control of Pakistan’s Gwadar port in the Arabian Sea, which is connected to China’s Xinjiang province through the US$60 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).
  • China is also developing Sri Lanka’s Hambantota port on lease for 99 years.
  • With the modernization of the Pakistani Navy as well as gaining control of naval bases, the Chinese Navy is expected to have a wider presence in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea.

India’s Emerging Position in the Indian Ocean Region:

  • Various agreements with coastal nations: India has negotiated agreements with several nations in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) to gain access to its military bases.
  • Agreements such as establishing access to Indonesia’s strategically located deep-sea Sabang port and Oman’s Duqm Port strengthen New Delhi’s geopolitical position as it serves as a part of China’s String of Pearls.
  • IOR engagement: India has entered into agreements with nations outside the IOR and further strengthened cooperation with France and the United States through Logistics Support Agreements.
  • It gives India access to port facilities on Diego Garcia in the US border area (the southernmost member of the Chagos Islands in the central Indian Ocean) and Reunion Island in the French border area.
  • Quadrilateral Dialogue: The United States engages with India through the Informal Quadrilateral Security Dialogue or Quad, which also includes Australia and Japan.
  • Paris-Delhi-Canberra axis (Axis): France has called for the creation of a “Paris-Delhi-Canberra axis” (Axis) in the Indo-Pacific, underscoring India’s growing influence on the geopolitical situation of the IOR.
  • Information Fusion Center for the Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR): The IFC-IOR has been established with a view to strengthen maritime security in the region and beyond by acting as a maritime information hub for the region.
  • Maritime exercise: India concluded an edition of its Malabar military exercise involving the US, Japan and Australia.
  • In the year 2018, India along with 16 other countries organized the multilateral naval exercise MILAN (MILAN) in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Rim of the Pacific Sailing Exercise (RIMPAC) with Australian, Japanese and US naval forces.
  • Naval ships: India already has an operational carrier, INS Vikramaditya, and plans to operate a second INS Vikrant, outlined ambitious plans to develop a class of aircraft carriers to follow Vikrant.
  • The Indian Navy has outlined plans to purchase 57 carrier-based fighter jets in the future, as well as modernize its submarine fleet with a new Arihant-class of nuclear-powered offensive ships.
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