Quit India Movement: Using Ideals to fight social evilsContext: As part of the ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ commemorating 75 years of independence, an exhibition on the ‘Quit India Movement’ has been displayed at the National Archives of India.
- Remembering the ideals of the Quit India movement:
- Passive resistance: Earlier the movement was non violent in nature and protest to a large extent was passive in nature.
- Element of do or die
- Vision of Independence:
- Learning lessons from the freedom fighters:
- The spirit of never giving up
- The spirit of unity
- Using the ideals to resolve today’s social issues: Quiting the social evils such as poverty, inequality, terrorism from the society
Quit India Movement: Background
- The concept of a struggle was endorsed during a CWC meeting in Wardha on July 14, 1942.
- Reasons to start the movement:
- Popular discontent as a result of the Cripps Mission’s failure to break the constitutional deadlock
- Japanese advance, reverses suffered by the British in South- East Asia and the Japanese troops were approaching the borders of India
The ‘Quit India’ Resolution
- On August 8, 1942, the Congress ratified the India Resolution at a meeting in Gowalia Tank, Bombay.
- The gathering also agreed to urge that British rule in India be ended immediately.
- announce India’s willingness to protect itself from all forms of fascism and imperialism.
- After the British leave, a provisional Indian government is formed.
- sanction an anti-British civil disobedience campaign
Instructions of Mahatma Gandhi
- Government employees: Instead of resigning, pledge your devotion to the Congress.
- Soldiers: Do not desert the army, but do not open fire on fellow soldiers.
- Students: If you are confident, leave studies.
- Peasants: Pay mutually agreed rent if zamindars are anti-government; do not pay rent if zamindars are pro-government.
- Princes: Support the masses and recognise your people’s sovereignty.
- People of princely states: Only support the ruler if he is anti-government, and declare yourself to be Indian citizens.
The movement: Activities performed
- Subversive Actions: Underground activities-A large number of nationalists went underground and engaged in subversive activities. Socialists, Forward Bloc members, Gandhi ashramites, revolutionary nationalists, and local organisations were among those who took part in these actions.
- Parallel Governments: Parallel governments have been founded in a number of locations, including:
- Ballia (August 1942, UP)under Chittu Pandey.
- Tamluk (Midnapore, Negal, from December 1942 to September 1944)
- Jatiya Sarkar, set up its own departments like law and order, Health, Education, Agriculture
- Satara (mid-1943 to 1945): Prati Sarkar under Nana Patil. The Government set up NyaydanMandals, set up village libraries
- Women, especially school and college girls, actively participated, and included Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kripalani and Usha Mehta (Announcer of Congress radio)