News: Tribe categorization work delays benefits under SEED.
GS Paper 2: Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States and the Performance of these Schemes; Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections.
Who are DNTs?
- The term ‘De-notified Tribes’ stands for all those communities which were once notified under the Criminal Tribes Acts, enforced by the British Raj between 1871 and 1947.
- These Acts were repealed by the Independent lndian Government in 1952, and these communities were “De-Notified”. A few of these communities which were listed as de-notified were also nomadic.
Who are nomads and semi-nomads?
- Terms such as nomads and semi -nomads are applied to social groups who undertook a fairly frequent, usually seasonal physical movement as port of their livelihood strategy in the recent past.
- The term semi-nomad is mostly used to describe those sections of nomads whose duration, distance and frequency of movement is comparatively less than others.
- The distinction between nomads and semi-nomads does not involve distinguishable ethnic categories or social groups, it rather describes the degree of mobility practiced by them.
What is the status of these tribes in India?
- It has been estimated that South Asia has the world’s largest nomadic population. In India, roughly 10 percent of the population is Denotified and Nomadic. While the number of Denotified Tribes is about 150, the population of Nomadic Tribes consists of about 500 different communities.
- Denotified Tribes have almost settled in various States of the country, the Nomadic Communities continue to be largely nomadic in pursuit of their traditional professions.
What are the various efforts undertaken for bringing denotified/nomadic/seminomadic communities into the mainstream?
- Ayyangar Committee, 1949: The Government of India repealed the Criminal Tribes Act with effect from 31 August 1952 on the recommendations of the Ayyangar Committee.
- Kalelkar Committee, 1953: Kalelkar Commission suggested that these tribes should be called “Denotified Communities”. The Kalelkar Commission further recommended that “these groups may be distributed in small groups in towns and villages where they would come in contact with other people, and get an opportunity for turning a new leaf. This would help in their eventual assimilation in society”.
- During the first NDA Government the first commission ,2003 to look into the problems of denotified/nomadic/seminomadic communities.
- Renke Commission , 2008 to give impetus for planned development of these communities.
- Idate Commission was constituted in 2015 to identify and proper listing of these communities in different states, to evaluate the progress of development of these communities in the states so that a systematic approach can be developed for the development of these communities.
- Based on the recommendation of the Idate commission, the Government of India set up the Development and Welfare Board for DNTs, SNTs &NTs (DWBDNCs) in 2019.
What is the Scheme for Economic Empowerment of DNTs, SNTs &NTs (SEED) ?
Scheme for Economic Empowerment of DNTs, SNTs &NTs (SEED) is an umbrella scheme for empowerment of these communities and accordingly, formulated with four components that affect their livelihood.
- Educational empowerment:Free coaching to students from these communities for Civil Services, entry to professional courses like medicine, engineering, MBA, etc. The selection of the candidates for each course will be based on system generated merit list through the online portal
- Health Insurance through Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana( PMJAY )of National Health Authority: The primary objective of the scheme is to provide financial assistance to National Health Authority (NHA) in association with State Health Agencies (SHAs) for undertaking providing a health insurance cover of Rs.Five lakhs per family per year to DNT, NT and SNT families as per norms of “Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.”
- Livelihoods to support income generation: The primary objective of the scheme is to provide financial assistance to National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) for undertaking institution building in association with State Rural Livelihoods Mission (SRLM) of state Governments/UTs at community level
- Housing through Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(PMAY) and Indira Awas Yojana(IAY):Considering the shortage of houses for DNTs, it has been proposed to earmark a separate outlay for PMAY to support specific importance in providing houses only for DNTs living in rural areas who have not taken benefits of the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana. The admissible support is Rs 1.20 lakhs in plains and 1.30lakhs in hilly areas (per unit assistance).
Implementation of the SEED
- The Scheme will be implemented through an online portal, developed by the Department of Social Justice & Empowerment. The portal consists of two modules – Registration Module and Scheme Module.
What are the other Schemes for the benefit of DNTs, SNTs and NTs?
Various other Schemes for the benefit of DNTs, SNTs and NTs:
- Nanaji Deshmukh scheme of Construction of Hostels for DNT Boys and Girls: This is a centrally sponsored scheme being implemented through State Governments/UT Administrations/ Central Universities. The Scheme aims at providing hostel facilities to students belonging to those DNT students who are not covered under SC, ST or OBC, to enable them to pursue secondary and higher education.The income ceiling for eligibility is Rs.2.00 lakh per annum. The Central Government will provide a maximum of 500 seats per annum throughout the country. The cost norm under the scheme is Rs.3.00 lakh per seat for the hostel (which is said between Centre and State in 75:25 ratio) and Rs. 5,000/- per seat for furniture.
- Dr.Ambedkar Pre-Matric and Post-Matric Scholarship for DNTs: A scheme of Pre-Matric and Post-Matric Scholarships for the benefit of children belonging to DNTs is being implemented. While benefits of reservations, scholarships etc. were available to SCs/STs/OBCs, no such welfare schemes are available for the welfare of these DNTs i.e. those who are not covered under SC, ST or OBC. The Scheme is for bringing about a focused intervention on these classes so that they are empowered socially and economically and their lives are also improved. This scheme is continuous and permanent in nature. The scholarship schemes are for individual beneficiaries not covered under any scheme. The financial assistance would be released to the State Governments/UT Administrations/ Universities/Colleges which would cater to the requirements of the students belonging to DNT communities.
Sources: PIB, Vikaspedia, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
- PIB:-https://bit.ly/3KZSaT4 ; https://bit.ly/3B36VAb
- Vikaspedia:- https://bit.ly/3B6vyM2
- Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment:-https://bit.ly/3qvnrnm