Shivshakti and Tiranga Points

Shivshakti and Tiranga Points

This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “Shivshakti and Tiranga Points”. The topic “Shivshakti and Tiranga Points” has relevance in the “Science and Technology” section of the UPSC CSE exam.

For Prelims:
Shivshakti and Tiranga Points
Moon Sites named after Indians

For Mains:
GS3:  Science and Technology 

Why in the news?

  • The Prime Minister of India has revealed that where the Chandrayaan-3 lander made contact with the lunar surface will bear the name “Shiv Shakti.” 

More about the news:

  • Additionally, the point where Chandrayaan-2’s journey concluded will be recognized as the “Tiranga Point,” while the location of Chandrayaan-1’s Moon Impact Probe crash in 2008 is designated as the ‘Jawahar Point.’ 
  • PM Modi expressed that these namings are meant to inspire all of India’s endeavours and serve as a reminder that failure does not signify the end
  • Furthermore, the 23rd of August will be celebrated as ‘National Space Day‘ to commemorate the soft landing achievement of Chandrayaan-3 at the Moon’s South Pole.

Outer Space Treaty of 1966:

  • During the Cold War, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs established the Outer Space Treaty. 
    • Amid the rivalry between the USSR and the US, this treaty was introduced to regulate space exploration, preventing national appropriation of celestial bodies. 
  • Article II of the treaty states that outer space, including the Moon, cannot be claimed by any nation through sovereignty, occupation, or any other means.
  • The treaty fosters collaboration among countries in space exploration and prohibits staking claims on the Moon. While nations can plant flags on the Moon, this act holds no legal weight. However, the treaty doesn’t address the naming of specific lunar sites.


Process of Naming Lunar Landing Sites:

  • The International Astronomical Union (IAU) is responsible for naming lunar landing sites and other celestial bodies. India is one of its 92 member countries. The IAU has governed planetary and satellite nomenclature since its establishment in 1919.
  • Historical Context: 
    • Moon maps were initially crafted in the 17th century. Italian astronomers, Grimaldi and Riccioli’s map served as the basis for the official naming guide used today. 
    • The Apollo 11 mission, the first human-crewed lunar landing, occurred in the Mare Tranquillitatis, a smooth area on the Moon’s equator, as depicted on their map.
  • Far Side of the Moon: 
    • Early lunar exploration was limited by Earth-based observation of only one side of the Moon due to its synchronous rotation. 
    • American and Soviet spacecraft later provided detailed images of the Moon’s far side, naming significant craters after scientists and engineers from these nations.
  • Informal Naming: 
    • During the Apollo missions, informal names and official names were assigned to landmarks near landing sites to facilitate communication. 
    • Many of these informal names eventually gained official recognition through IAU approval.


Other Moon Sites named after Indians: 


Sarabhai Crater A crater on the Moon is named after Vikram Sarabhai, the first ISRO Chairman.
Kalpana Chawla Crater The late astronaut Kalpana Chawla, the first Indian-born woman in space, has a crater named after her. She tragically lost her life in the Columbia disaster.


Sources: Chandrayaan missions: Who names sites on the Moon? ( 


Q1. With reference to Moon Sites, consider the following statements: 

  1. The location of Chandrayaan-1’s Moon Impact Probe crash is designated as the ‘Jawahar Point.’ 
  2. Kalpana Chawla Crater named after her, after tragically lost her life in the ill-fated Apollo Mission.
  3. Vikram Sarabhai, the first chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation is regarded as the father of India’s space programme.

Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only 

(d) None 

Answer: (c) 


Q2. Consider the following: 

  1. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs established the Outer Space Treaty.
  2. India, along with the US, Russia, and China, is a party to the Outer Space Treaty.
  3. Since its inception, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs has governed planetary and satellite nomenclature.

How many of the abovementioned statements are correct ?

(a) Only one 

(b) Only two 

(c) All three 

(d) None 

Answer: (c)

Q3. Discuss the significance of naming sites on the Moon after notable personalities and events in space exploration history. How do these named sites contribute to the preservation of space heritage?

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