Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) Phase II : A Critical View of the Sanitation Miracle in Rural India

Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) Phase II : A Critical View of the Sanitation Miracle in Rural India

Source – The Hindu and PIB.

General Studies – Solid and Liquid Waste Management, Environmental and Health Management, Swachh Bharat Mission, Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural), State Public Welfare Schemes, Social Justice.

Why in the News ?

  • Swachh Bharat Mission, the world’s largest sanitation initiative, was launched by the Prime Minister of India in 2014 as a tribute to the birthday of Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi, to achieve open defecation free India by October 2, 2019. More than 10 crore individual household toilets were constructed under this programme. Due to which in India the percentage which was 39% in the year 2014 became almost 100% in the year 2019. Because by then about 6 lakh villages in India had declared themselves open defecation free (ODF).
  • The studies of cleanliness surveys conducted under the Swachh Bharat Mission clearly show that the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) campaign has made a significant impact in the economic, environmental and health sectors in the Indian society and the campaign has Has especially contributed to the empowerment of women and self-respect of women. This also led to the achievement of SDG 6.2 (sanitation and hygiene) 11 years ahead of schedule.
  • The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi has recently approved the second phase of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) till 2024-25. This will focus on improving facilities in public toilets (ODF Plus) after eliminating open defecation, which will also include continuation of the open defecation free campaign and solid and liquid waste management (SLWM). In this program, work will be done to ensure that not even a single person is left out and every person uses the toilet.
  • Lack of sanitation has been considered as a major problem in India. Even after 67 years of India’s independence, in 2014, about 10 crore rural and about 1 crore urban households in India did not have clean toilets and 55 crore people, or about half the country’s population at that time, defecated in the open.
  • The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) has advised all States to re-verify that there are no rural households that are unable to use toilets and to ensure that if any such If a household is identified, it should be provided necessary assistance for construction of individual household toilet so that no one is left behind under this programme.
  • The main objective of Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (Phase 2) is to maintain the ODF status of all 6 lakh rural villages and improve the sanitation level by providing solid and liquid waste management as ODF Plus by 2024-25.
  • Over the past decade, improving sanitation coverage has been one of the major public policy miracles in India. Access to water and sanitation is Goal 6 among the 17 Sustainable Development Goals envisioned by the United Nations.
  • Public sanitation programs have a long history in the country, beginning with the launch of the highly subsidized Central Rural Sanitation Program (CRSP) in 1986.
  • The Total Sanitation Campaign in 1999 marked a shift from a high-subsidy system to a low-subsidy system.
  • The Public Sanitation Program evolved into a mission under the Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) in 2014 to make India open defecation free (ODF) by October 2019. Encouraged by the achievements under SBM, The government launched the second phase of SBM-G. The focus here was on sustainability of initial achievements by promoting solid and liquid waste management and covering households previously left out. The government aims to transform India from ODF to ODF Plus by 2024-25. According to government data, about 85% of villages in India have become ODF Plus. Yet, this impressive performance also needs to be viewed from the perspective of behavioral change that will truly bring sustainability.

Main provisions of Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) campaign :

  • Swachh Bharat Mission Rural (SBM-G) Phase-II will be implemented in mission mode with a total outlay of Rs 1,40,881 crore for the period from 2020-21 to 2024-25. This will be a good model of synergy between different dimensions of funding as out of this, Rs 52,497 crore will be allocated from the budget of the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation while the remaining funds will be allocated from the 15th Finance Commission and MNREGA. Especially for solid and liquid waste management. The fund will be funded from funds being issued under revenue generation models.
  • The focus is on providing access to IHHL to the left out and newly emerging households to achieve the target of ODF Plus villages. Under this campaign, biodegradable waste management through composting and setting up biogas plants; Collection, separation and storage facilities for plastic waste management; Construction of soak pits, waste stabilization ponds etc. for greywater management; And the program also includes faecal sludge management through co-treatment and setting up of FSTPs in existing sewage treatment plants/faecal sludge treatment plants (STP/FSTP) in urban areas.
  • There are three progressive stages of ODF Plus villages. A village which retains its ODF status and has arrangements for solid waste management or liquid waste management is considered as an ODF Plus Aspirational Village. A village that maintains its ODF status and has both solid waste management or liquid waste management in place is considered an emerging ODF Plus village. On the other hand, an ODF Plus model village is one that retains its ODF status and has arrangements for both solid waste management and liquid waste management.
  • Under this programme, the provision of providing an amount of Rs 12,000 to new eligible households as per existing norms to promote construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL) will continue. Funding norms for Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) have been rationalized and the number of households has been replaced by per capita income. Additionally, financial assistance to Gram Panchayats (GP) for construction of community sanitation complex (CMSC) at village level has been increased from Rs 2 lakh to Rs 3 lakh.

Fund sharing structure under Swachh Bharat Mission Rural (SBM-G) :

  • The Swachh Bharat Mission Rural (SBM-G) program will be implemented by the States/UTs as per the operational guidelines, which will be issued to the States shortly. The fund sharing structure for all components between the Center and the States is 90:10 between the North-Eastern States and Himalayan States and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, 60:40 between the other States and 100:00 between the other Union Territories.

Indicator base for monitoring ODF Plus :

The SLWM component of ODF Plus is monitored based on output-outcome indicators of the following four key areas –

  1. Plastic Waste Management.
  2. Biodegradable Solid Waste Management (SLWM) (which includes animal waste management).
  3. gray water management and
  4. Fecal sludge management.
  • The second phase of Swachh Bharat Mission Rural (SBM-G) will continue to boost employment generation and rural economy sector through construction of household toilets and community toilets, as well as infrastructure for SLWM such as compost pits, absorbents Will continue to encourage pits, waste stabilization ponds, treatment plants etc.
  • The Cabinet’s approval for Swachh Bharat Mission Rural (SBM-G) Phase II will help rural India effectively meet the challenge of solid and liquid waste management and thereby significantly improve the health of villagers in the country.

Requirements for construction of toilets under Swachh Bharat Mission Rural (SBM-G) :

The following qualifications are required for construction of toilets under Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (SBM-G) –

  1. The construction of the toilet will have to be completed in one go, which must include a double pit toilet, water tank, a wash basin for hand washing and a double pit toilet.
  2. A round block made of bricks or cement must be inserted in the pit.
  3. In a double pit toilet, the size of each pit should be 4 feet deep, 4 feet long and 4 feet wide and the distance from one pit to the other should be at least 3 feet.
  4. Both these pits should be near the toilet which should be connected to a section box. The distance between them should be at least one meter and this pit must be at a distance of at least 15 meters i.e. 40-45 feet from any tap or water source.
  5. The beneficiary of the toilet must have a bank account so that the amount allocated for the construction of the toilet can be sent directly to his bank account through DBT.
  6. Only one toilet will be constructed on one ration card.

Process for obtaining financial assistance in toilet construction :

  1. Before getting a toilet built, it is mandatory for the applicant to inform the village Sarpanch of Village Secretary. To get financial assistance after construction of a toilet, the applicant can first obtain the form from the village Sarpanch or Additional Deputy Commissioner (ADC) office.
  2. The applicant can fill all the information required in the form and after getting it certified by the Sarpanch, can submit it either to the Sarpanch or directly to the Additional Deputy Commissioner (ADC) office. The applicant also has to attach a color photograph of himself/herself along with the form.
  3. The toilet is surveyed by the authorized officer and it is seen whether the toilet is properly constructed or not. Along with this, it is also checked whether the toilet is being used or not. If satisfied after investigation, the amount of financial assistance is deposited in the bank account of the person by the authorized officer.

Conclusion / Solution:

  1. If the government wants to transform India from open defecation free to open defecation free plus status by 2024-25, it needs to identify the gaps in the current programme.
  2. The receipt of Cabinet approval for Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) Phase-2 will help rural India effectively meet the challenge of solid and liquid waste management and improve the health of villagers in the country.

Practice Questions for Preliminary Exam:

Q.1 Consider the following statements with reference to Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) in India.

  1. In India, Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) has played an important role in the empowerment of women.
  2. Under the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen), India has seven stages of open defecation free (ODF) plus villages.
  3. In the second phase of Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen), only one toilet will be constructed per ration card.
  4. In the second phase of Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen), a lump sum amount of fifty thousand is provided to the beneficiaries for the construction of toilets.

Which of the above statement /statements is correct?

(A) Only 1, 2 and 3

(B) Only 2, 3 and 4

(C ) Only 2 and 4

(D) Only 1 and 3 

Answer – (D)

Practice Questions for Main Exam:

Q.1. Highlighting the main features of the second phase of Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen), discuss how this program has played an important role in the empowerment of women in India and in the field of economic, environmental and health management ?


No Comments

Post A Comment