16 Aug 2021 TALIBAN TAKES CONTROL IN AFGHANISTAN
- The US-led army and the NATO forces had already withdrawn following the US-Taliban
- The Taliban forces were able to capture the whole of Afghanistan in a 7 day time period
- The US estimated that it would take at least 1 month for the takeover.
- The Afghan forces had surrendered before the Taliban forces
- The NATO-led and US-led the training of the forces of the Afghans did not materialize to sustain the blow to the Afghan government
- The failure on their part is also due to
- Lack of support to the government in the rural part of the country
- The Afghan government was internally divided
- They were lacking in advantage war weapons
- Embassy people: Many people are stuck in Afghanistan working for different foreign countries
- The evacuation of these people is an issue
- There is a high risk that the Taliban would turn Afghanistan into a pure Islamic state with a totalitarian government.
A solution-oriented approach
- Peace transfer is necessary for the region to remain stable. The Taliban has maintained that there will be a peaceful transfer.
- Power Sharing arrangement: The Afghan government and Taliban should have a power-sharing arrangement deal in order to have a stable region
- Negotiations: The Taliban and Afghan Government should negotiate on terms as to how to proceed with the type of government system in Afghanistan. Closed-door negotiations will be an option said the Taliban
- UNSC interference: A political solution with the interference of UNSC in this matter is needed and it should be on terms with the Taliban.
- Deobandi Ismasist movement and militant group in Afghanistan
- The meaning of the word Taliban says a group of students.
- They aim to liberate Afghanistan from western power and have their own Sharia.
- The rise of the Taliban can be deemed from the support the US-Saudi-Pakistan government provided to the people of Afghanistan to fight against the Soviets in the Soviet intervention of Afghanistan of 1979. The Pakistan government at that time feared that the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan would also have an impact on the Balochistan province, so it started training troops to fight against the Soviets.
The Civil War
- The Mujahideen movement which was started to out the Soviets in 1979 was the starting base of the movement
- In 1989, the Soviets pulled itself out of Afghanistan. The rivalries between all the groups started coming up.
- The Taliban in 1996, took over many regions of Afghanistan. They took the earlier communist leader captive and killed him in public.
- It is a landlocked country with mountains around it
- Bordering countries are Pakistan to its east and the south. To its west is Iran. To its north are Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. It also shares a small border in the northeast part with China and India.
Important mountain ranges: Hindu Kush
Investment in Afghanistan
- India over the period of time has invested in dams, electricity projects, roads construction, and other infrastructure.
- Zaranj Delaram highway: India has constructed the highway to increase its connectivity to Central Asia. This highway provides India an alternate route to central Asia given our not-so-good relations with Pakistan. India will have access to this highway through the Chabahar port in Iran
- Salma Dam: India has helped build this Dam. This will be useful in irrigation, hydropower generation. This Dam is a symbol of India’s Afghanistan friendship and so it is also known as a Friendship Dam.
- Parliament: India has helped build the Parliament of Afghanistan. This is a symbol of democracy
- Education; and medical help: India has always been at the forefront regarding help in education and medical services. India has also helped build educational infrastructure in addition to providing human resources.
Concerns for India after Taliban takes over Afghanistan
- Human Resources: The evacuation of Indians stuck in Afghanistan. Many Indians have been in Afghanistan doing projects and involved in construction. Many Indians have already lost their lives over skirmishes between the Afghan forces and the Taliban.
- Investment: India has been involved in many ongoing projects in Afghanistan. There are around 400 ongoing developmental projects.
- Energy Security: Central Asia and the Gulf are important from India security concerns. So a stable Afghanistan is important from an Indian point
- Regional Stability: India can handle the bordering part between India and Pakistan but the instability in Afghanistan will give a safe haven to terrorist organizations.
Source: The Hindu
Syllabus: Prelims; GS 2 (International Relations)