Techniques of Bone Grafting

Techniques of Bone Grafting

This article covers ‘Daily Current Affairs’ and the topic details of ”Techniques of Bone Grafting”. This topic is relevant in the “Science and Technology” section of the UPSC CSE exam.


Why in the News?

Recently, the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur entered into an agreement with a biotechnology company based in Canada, Conlis Global, through a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). This agreement involves the licensing of a pioneering technology developed domestically by IIT Kanpur known as “Nano Hydroxyapatite-Based Porous Polymer Composite Scaffold for Bioactive Molecule Delivery in Musculoskeletal Regeneration”. 


About Nano Hydroxyapatite-Based Porous Polymer Composite Scaffold

Nano hydroxyapatite-based porous composite scaffolds are a new generation of biomaterial with immense potential in bone repair. Here’s a closer look at their properties and applications:



  • Biodegradable: These scaffolds naturally break down over time within the body, eliminating the need for additional surgery.
  • Bone Regeneration:  They possess both osteoinductive and osteopromotive properties, meaning they can stimulate bone growth and formation.
  • Biocompatible:  The material is highly compatible with living tissues, promoting good interaction with osteoblast cells, which are crucial for bone formation.
  • Strong and Stable:  These scaffolds exhibit high mechanical strength, providing a sturdy support structure for bone regrowth.



  • Orthopaedics and Dentistry:  They are finding use in various orthopaedic and dental implants, including bone graft substitutes, coatings for prosthetic devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds.
  • Large Bone Defects:  Functionalized versions of these scaffolds can be used as fillers for large bone defects. Their porous structure ensures proper blood circulation and oxygen supply, which is vital for bone healing.
  • Enhanced Healing:  By promoting tissue formation and mineralisation, these scaffolds can accelerate bone defect repair.


About Bone Grafting

Bone grafting is a surgical technique to address missing bone or heal complex fractures. It essentially involves transplanting bone tissue to promote bone growth and regeneration. This procedure is employed in various fields like orthopaedics, dentistry, and maxillofacial surgery.


Types of Graft Materials

  • Autografts: The patient’s own bone, often taken from the hip, ribs, or other suitable sites. This offers the best compatibility but requires additional surgery for harvesting.
  • Allografts: Bone from a deceased donor, processed to minimise rejection risks.
  • Xenografts: Animal bone, typically from cows or pigs, specially treated for biocompatibility.
  • Alloplastic Grafts: Synthetic materials like ceramics, polymers, or biocompatible metals that mimic bone structure and stimulate new bone growth.


Common Reasons for Bone Grafting

  • Fracture Healing: To promote healing in complex fractures, non-unions (fractures that haven’t healed on their own), or bone defects.
  • Filling Bone Defects:  Bone loss due to trauma, tumours, infections, or birth defects can be addressed with grafts.
  • Spinal Fusion:  For stabilising the spine, treating disc problems, or correcting spinal deformities in orthopaedic and neurosurgical procedures.
  • Dental Implants:  To increase jawbone volume for successful placement of dental implants.
  • Maxillofacial Reconstruction:  Restoring facial bone structure and function after trauma, birth defects, or tumour removal.


Bone Grafting process & techniques

  • Harvesting Bone Grafts: Techniques for obtaining autografts can involve traditional open surgery or minimally invasive procedures.
  • Preparing the Graft: Allografts and xenografts undergo processing to remove cellular components while preserving the bone structure and growth factors.
  • Graft Placement:  The graft material is surgically inserted into the defect site and often secured with fixation devices like screws, plates, or meshes.
  • Bone Graft Substitutes:  Synthetic materials or biological agents can be used to stimulate bone formation and regeneration in some cases.

Download Yojna daily current affairs eng med 1st April 2024


Prelims practise questions


Q1. Consider the following diseases:

  1. Hepatitis B

How many of the diseases above can be transmitted from one person to another through tattooing? 

(a) Only one

(b) Only two

(c) All three

(d) None


Answer: B


Mains practise questions

Q1. What are the potential applications of nanotechnology, such as nanobots, in the healthcare sector? Discuss how these nanotechnologies could revolutionise medical treatment, diagnosis, and drug delivery methods.


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