Water Conservation : Management and Promotion

Water Conservation : Management and Promotion

Source – The Hindu and PIB.


General Studies: – Indian Geography, Environment and Ecology, Environmental Protection, Intensive Afforestation, Climate Change, Changing Pattern of Rainfall and Weather Related Events, World Water Day 2024, Rain Water Conservation, Water Management and Promotion, Sustainable Development, Catch the Rain. Campaign.


Why in the News ?


  • Recently on March 22, 2024 ‘all over the world  ‘ world Water Day ‘‘Celebrated.
  • World Water Day, held annually on 22 March since 1993, is an annual day of the United Nations. The main objective of which is to focus on the importance of freshwater.
  • The main objective of World Water Day is to spread or raise awareness about people living without access to safe water.
  • The main focus of World Water Day is to support the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 6 and achieve the goal of providing clean water and sanitation for all by 2030.
  • The main theme of World Water Day 2024 is “Leveraging Water for Peace”.
  • Recently India’s Jal Shakti Ministry has launched an initiative to optimize rainwater harvesting and other sustainable water management systems.‘Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain – 2024 Campaign ‘ start on have done.
  • India’s Jal Shakti Minister Gajendra Singh Shekhawat launched the campaign in New Delhi and also underlined the important role of women in water management, conservation and sustainability.
  • This program’s theme was based onWater power through women power’  in India. 
  • In India, it was organized at the Convention Center of New Delhi Municipal Council, as part of the fifth edition of the campaign of the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • India ‘Water power through women power ‘  The campaign seeks to establish a strong link between women empowerment and sustainable management of water resources.
  • Among the main attractions of this event organized in India ‘Jal Shakti Abhiyaan 2019 to 2023′ – A public-led movement towards water security’ Screening of a documentary titled and two books –‘Jal Shakti Abhiyaan: 2019 to 2023’ and ‘Champions of 101 Water Life Mission’ and ‘Women Water Warriors’ The talks were also unveiled.
  • According to a recently released report, India’s Bengaluru city is in a serious water crisis, leading to significant shortages in various sectors.
  • According to the report, 223 out of 236 taluks of Karnataka are affected by drought, including Mandya and Mysore districts, which are the water sources of Bengaluru.
  • As summer heats up in India, about 7,082 villages across Karnataka are at risk of drinking water crisis in the coming months.


History of World Water Day :


  • SunIn the Environment and Development Conference held in Brazil in 1992, a proposal was passed on the topic of celebrating ‘World Water Day’ and availability of clean water.
  • Adopting this resolution in 1992, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) announced to celebrate ‘World Water Day’ on 22 March every year at the global level.
  • Therefore, ‘World Water Day’ was celebrated for the first time in the year 1993.
  • In 2010, the UN recognized the right to safe, clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right.
  • The main objective of recognizing the right to safe, clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right is to focus people’s  attention on the global water crisis.

Importance of World Water Day :

  • The main focus of World Water Day is to support the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.
  • The main goal of celebrating World Water Day is to provide clean water and sanitation to all by 2030 at the global level.

Present need of water conservation : 



  • According to the United Nations, 1.4 million people die every year from diseases caused by lack of sanitation, hygiene and clean water. About 25% of the world’s population lacks access to clean water, and almost half the global population lacks clean toilets. The global water situation is projected to increase by 55% by the year 2050.
  • Water is extremely essential for everyday activities in human life. Proper use of water plays an important role in the management of freshwater reserves. An average person wastes up to 45 liters of water a day through his daily activities. Therefore, making a few changes in daily water usage can save a considerable amount of water for future use.
  • More than 3 billion people around the world migrate to other countries due to water dependence.
  • Only 24 countries worldwide have signed cooperation agreements for shared water use.
  • Public health and prosperity, food and energy systems, economic productivity, and environmental integrity all depend on a managed water cycle.

Current status of management and promotion for water conservation in India : 



  • At present, due to increasing demand for water in all areas and changing rainfall patterns, dependence on groundwater has increased. There is a great need to make concrete efforts with appropriate action for its proper management and sustainable use.
  • According to the United Nations World Water Development Report 2022, groundwater accounts for approximately 99 percent of all liquid freshwater on Earth which has the potential to provide social, economic and environmental benefits to society.
  • Groundwater accounts for about 50 percent of the total water used for domestic purposes, including drinking water.
  • India’s population is about 1.4 billion, which is the highest in the world. The population is expected to increase to 1.7 billion by 2050.
  • According to the World Bank, India is home to 18 percent of the world’s population, but has enough water resources for only about 4 percent of the people.
  • Nearly 90 million in India do not have access to safe water. The normal annual rainfall of India is 1100 mm which is more than the world average rainfall of 700 mm.
  • According to data released by the India Meteorological Department, the southwest monsoon during June-August 2023 has been below normal in 42 percent of the districts. In August 2023, rainfall in the country was 32 percent below normal and 62 percent below normal in the southern states.
  • India received the least rainfall in August last year after 1901 i.e. in the last 122 years.
  • Less rainfall in India will not only have a serious impact on Indian agriculture, but it can also lead to severe water shortage in various areas of the country.
  • The net quantity of water that can be used in a year in India is estimated at 1,121 billion cubic meters (BCM). However, data published by the Water Resources Ministry shows that the total water demand will be 1,093 BCM in 2025 and 1,447 BCM in 2050. As a result, there is a possibility of a huge reduction in water availability in the next 10 years.
  • India exploits groundwater the most in the world. This quantity is more than the combined exploitation of the world’s second and third largest groundwater exploiters (China and the United States).
  • According to the Falkenmark Water Index, about 76 percent of the people in India are already facing water shortage. Although in India only 8 percent of the extracted groundwater is used as drinking water. 80 percent of it is used in irrigation and the remaining 12 percent is used by industries.
  • According to the NITI Aayog report, by the year 2030 the country’s water demand will double the available supply.

Solutions to be taken to overcome the problem of water crisis in India and for water conservation : 


  • There can be many remedial measures to reduce the water crisis and its over-exploitation in India. In which some remedial measures are as follows –
  • Water consumption can be measured and limited using modern technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Remote Sensing etc.
  • Expanding water sources, improving water efficiency, and protecting water resources can improve water availability and quality in India.
  • Technical measures like Buried Clay Pot Plantation Irrigation can also be used to overcome the water crisis in India and for water conservation which can save water and improve crop productivity.
  • To overcome the water crisis in India and for water conservation, it is extremely important to improve the policies at the government level to conserve water resources and expand micro irrigation techniques to ensure accurate and correct consumption of water. Can go.
  • Watershed management can prove to be a good option for water conservation and groundwater recharge in India.
  • The main objective of development of water harvesting in India is to conserve every drop of rain water, control soil erosion, increase soil moisture and recharge, water harvesting per unit area and per unit water despite adversities of weather. Productivity has to be maximized.
  • Special emphasis should be given to the traditional system of water conservation in India.
  • In order for the rivers flowing in different areas of India to remain perennial, it is very important to make policies at the government level and make efforts for water conservation.
  • It is extremely important to establish a water bank in each area along with creating a clear framework for water budgeting and water auditing in villages in rural areas of India.
  • Groundwater scientists can play an important role in water conservation. Also, symposiums and seminars should be organized from time to time to bring awareness about water conservation in the society. In the present situation, for a permanent solution to this problem, everyone will have to make collective efforts for water conservation and promotion.

Challenges facing water management in India :

The following challenges exist before water management in India. Only by finding solutions to these challenges can India move forward in the direction of water conservation, management and promotion.

  • To reduce the gap between demand and supply of water.
  • Providing sufficient water for food production and balancing use among competing demands.
  • To meet the growing demands of metros and other big cities.
  • Treatment of wastewater.
  • Sharing of water with neighboring countries and co-basin states etc.

Conclusion / Path to solution :




  • Bureaucratic, non-transparent and non-participatory approach still persists in the functioning of water governance institutions in India. Therefore, it cannot be denied that there is a need for improvement in the water administration of the country.
  • It is necessary that reliable information and related data about natural disasters like drought and flood are available to us as soon as possible so that they can be dealt with in time and possible damage can be reduced.
  • It is necessary that important decisions regarding raising the ground water level and regulating ground water use are taken immediately.
  • The condition of the rivers in the country remains pathetic and the efforts of the present government to make the river Ganga pollution free may not have achieved the expected success, therefore it is necessary to seriously consider the condition of the rivers in the country and to make them pollution free. For this, the above mentioned policies should be formulated.
  • Water is the most valuable resource on earth and we have to protect it not only for ourselves but also for future generations.
  • At present, when India as well as the entire world is facing water crisis, it is necessary to pay serious attention to this. There are policies related to water management or conservation in India, but the problem lies at the level of implementation of those policies.
  • Therefore, the laxity in the implementation of policies should be removed and their better implementation should be ensured so that the biggest problem of water mismanagement in the country can be addressed.


Practice Questions for Preliminary Exam :

Q. 1. Consider the following statements regarding water conservation: management and promotion.

  1. The main objective of World Water Day is to spread or raise awareness about people living without access to safe water.
  2. ‘Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain – 2024 Campaign’ has been jointly launched by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development and Nehru Yuva Kendra in India.
  3. Main topic/theme of World Water Day 2024 is “Leveraging Water for Peace”
  4. Main theme of World Water Day 2024 was ‘Water power through women power’‘ in India

Which of the above statement/ statements is/are  correct?

(A) Only 1, 2 and 3 

(B) Only 1 and 4 

(C) Only 2 and 4

(D) Only 2, 3 and 4 


Answer – (D)


Practice Questions for Main Exam :

Q.1.Underlining the importance of World Water Day, discuss what is the importance of water conservation, management and promotion in India and describe the challenges coming in its way and suggest ways to solve the challenges?


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