World Population Prospect (WPP) Report 2022 – Today Current Affairs
- According to the 2022 edition of the United Nations’ World Population Prospect (WPP) report, India is projected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country in the year 2023.
Today Current Affairs
World Population Prospects:
- The Population Division of the United Nations has been publishing the WPP biennially since 1951.
- Each revision of the WPP provides a historical time series of population indicators beginning with the year 1950.
- It does so by taking into account newly released national data to revise estimates of past trends in fertility, mortality or international migration.
Population Growth: But Growth Rate Low : The Hindu Analysis
- The global population is expected to grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030, 9.7 billion in 2050 and 10.4 billion in 2100.
- For the first time since 1950, the global growth rate fell below 1% per annum in the year 2020.
Rates vary greatly across countries and regions : The Hindu Analysis
- More than half of the projected growth in global population by the year 2050 will be concentrated in just eight countries:
- These are- Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and United Republic of Tanzania.
- The 46 Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are among the countries with the fastest population growth in the world.
- The population of many countries is projected to double between 2022 and 2050, facing additional pressure on resources and challenges in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Growing elderly population : The Hindu Analysis
- The share of the global population aged 65 or over is projected to increase from 10% in 2022 to 16% in 2050.
Demographic Segmentation : The Hindu Analysis
- The continuing decline in fertility has led to an increase in the working age population (between 25 and 64 years), creating opportunities for accelerated economic growth per capita.
- This change in age distribution provides a time bound opportunity for accelerated economic growth.
International Migration : The Hindu Analysis
- International migration is having a significant impact on the population trends of some countries.
- The contribution of international migration to population growth in high-income countries exceeded the birth-death balance between 2000 and 2020.
- Migration will be the sole driver of population growth in high-income countries over the next few decades.
Conclusions related to India : The Hindu Analysis
- India’s growth rate was 2.3% in the year 1972, which has now come down to less than 1%.
- The number of children every Indian woman has during her lifetime has come down from about 5.4 to less than 2.1 now.
- This means that India has achieved replacement fertility rate at which a population changes itself from one generation to the next. The Hindu Analysis
- The fertility rate is declining, so the death rate has increased with advances in health care and medicine.
- Populations of 0-14 years and 15-24 years will continue to decline, while populations of 25-64 and 65+ will continue to increase in the coming decades.
- This reduction in premature mortality for successive generations, reflected in increased levels of life expectancy at birth, has been a factor in India’s population growth.
Initiative : The Hindu Analysis
- Countries with older populations should take steps to adapt public programs to a growing proportion of older people, including improving the stability of social security and pension systems and the establishment of universal health care and long-term care systems.
- To maximize the potential benefits of a favorable age distribution, countries need to invest in the development of their human capital by ensuring access to health care and quality education at all ages, and by promoting opportunities for productive employment and decent work. The Hindu Analysis
- People already in the age group of 25-64 need skills, which is the only way to ensure that they are more productive and earn better income.
- 65+ age category is going to grow very fast and it is facing many challenges. This will increase the pressure on resources before future governments. If the elderly live within the family structure, the burden on the government can be reduced. “If we go back to our roots or traditions and live as a family (as opposed to the individualism of the Western trend), the challenges will be less.
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