PM JANMAN scheme

This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “ PM JANMAN scheme”. This topic has relevance in the Social Justice section of the UPSC CSE exam.

GS 2: Social Justice

Why in the news?

The Scheme is designed to cater to the needs of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) households and habitations by ensuring:

  • Basic Facilities:
      • Provision of safe housing, clean drinking water, and sanitation to enhance living conditions.
  • Improved Access to Education, Health, and Nutrition:
      • Focus on enhancing access to quality education, healthcare, and nutrition for PVTG communities.
  • Road and Telecom Connectivity:
      • Initiatives to improve road and telecom connectivity to overcome geographical isolation and enhance communication.
  • Sustainable Livelihood Opportunities:
      • Implementation of measures to promote sustainable livelihoods, including skills training, resources, and support for economic activities.
  • Saturation for Key Schemes:
      • Ensuring saturation for key government schemes such as Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), Sickle Cell Disease Elimination, TB Elimination, 100% immunization, Pradhan Mantri Poshan Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, etc.

This initiative is part of the Pradhan Mantri-PVTG Development Mission, as announced in India’s 2022-23 Union Budget. The government has allocated Rs 15,000 crore over three years for the comprehensive development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) are subsets of tribal communities in India that are identified as more vulnerable due to their isolation, distinct socio-economic and cultural traits, and low population. The concept of PVTGs evolved from the Primitive Tribal Groups (PTG) category established by the Dhebar Commission in 1960-61, which aimed to address disparities among Scheduled Tribes. In 2006, this category was renamed Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups.

Numbers and Spread:

  • In 1975, the Indian government identified 52 tribal groups as PVTGs based on the Dhebar Commission’s recommendations.
  • Currently, there are 75 PVTGs in 22,544 villages across 18 states and one Union Territory, with a total population of about 28 lakh individuals.
  • Odisha has the highest number, with more than 2.5 lakh PVTG individuals.


  • PVTGs are characterized by stagnant or declining populations, pre-agricultural technology, extremely low literacy levels, and subsistence-level economies.
  • Population sizes vary significantly, ranging from under 1,000 to over 1 lakh in different groups.


  • PVTGs face severe marginalization due to isolation, low population, and unique socio-economic and cultural traits.
  • Challenges include limited access to basic services, social discrimination, vulnerability to displacement from development and natural disasters, and lack of political representation.

Government Schemes:

  • The PVTG Development Plan focuses on providing education, healthcare, and livelihood opportunities while preserving traditional knowledge.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Janjatiya Vikas Mission (PMJVM) emphasizes market linkages and procurement of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) at Minimum Support Prices.
  • Other schemes include the Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana, Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP), Eklavya Model Residential Schools, Forest Rights Act 2006 for land titles, Support to Tribal Research Institute (STRI) scheme, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989, and the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996.
  • Direct recruitment through reservations aids in education, self-governance, and protection against discrimination.

How PM-JANMAN scheme different:

PM-JANMAN, or Pradhan Mantri Janjatiya Vikas Mission, distinguishes itself through several key features aimed at addressing the unique challenges faced by Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):

  • Proper Identification and Recognition:
      • Critique of Existing Criteria: The criteria for identifying PVTGs have been criticized as outdated, leading to confusion and exclusion. Some PVTGs are not recognized as Scheduled Tribes in certain states.
      • Government’s Response: The initiative includes creating a Human Development Index for PVTGs, addressing concerns raised in reports by Dr. Hrusikesh Panda and Virginius Xaxa. Baseline surveys have been conducted for about 40 PVTG groups for targeted development planning.
  • Participatory Bottom-Up Approach:
      • Customized Strategies: PM-JANMAN rejects a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach, instead adopting customized strategies that respect the unique needs and priorities of PVTGs.
      • Inclusive Decision-Making: The scheme actively involves PVTGs in decision-making processes, specifically addressing issues like land rights, social inclusion, and cultural preservation.
  • Livelihood Promotion:
      • Skills Training and Resources: The scheme focuses on providing skills training and resources, including land and credit, to promote sustainable livelihoods.
      • Forest Rights Act Implementation: Granting land titles under the Forest Rights Act (FRA) secures access to forest resources, with Section 3(1)(e) of the FRA specifically supporting the rights of primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities.
      • Cultural Heritage Preservation: Encouraging traditional technologies and skill enhancement through industry partnerships helps maintain cultural heritage while promoting sustainable development.
  • Health, Nutrition, and Education:
      • Mobile Medical Health Units: Outreach strategies, such as Mobile Medical Health Units, are crucial for providing healthcare in remote areas.
      • Cultural Integration in Education: Incorporating the culture and language of PVTGs into the curriculum, providing transportation, and training teachers about PVTG cultural contexts enhance education accessibility.
  • Infrastructure Development:
      • Relaxed Guidelines: Habitations of PVTGs often do not meet the criteria for mainstream schemes due to factors like population requirements or lack of surveys.
      • Guidelines Adjustment: Guidelines for infrastructure schemes, including Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, and Jal Jeevan Mission, have been relaxed to improve access to housing, water, sanitation, electricity, and connectivity for PVTGs.

Download Yojna daily current affairs eng med 28th Dec 2023

SOURCE: Experts Explain: How the PM JANMAN scheme can help Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups | Explained News – The Indian Express


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