09 Feb 2024 Cameroon adopted the Nagoya Protocol
This article covers ‘Daily Current Affairs’ and the topic details of “Cameroon adopted the Nagoya Protocol”.This topic is relevant in the “Environment” section of the UPSC CSE exam.
Why in the News?
Cameroon, a country located in central Africa and having a high biodiversity with around 11,000 plant, animal, and microbe species, recently adopted the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing, a United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity ( UNCBD) accord.
What was the reason for Cameroon to sign the Nagoya Protocol?
- Preserving Traditional Knowledge: Many plants, animals, and microorganisms contain valuable genetic information or resources, such as genes for creating medications or crops. Traditional knowledge refers to the indigenous and local communities’ knowledge, innovations, and practices about these resources.
- Benefiting Local Communities: The firms’ revenues did not assist the communities where the plants were collected. Adopting the Nagoya Protocol contributes to the protection of indigenous and local communities’ rights and interests, as well as the promotion of biodiversity-driven innovation and development.
- Stopping Biopiracy and Equitable Sharing of Resources: Both genetic resources and conventional knowledge are important for bioprospecting, which involves exploring biological material for new sources of medications, food, and products. Bioprospecting can also contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. For example, Prunus Africana, a Cameroonian plant, is used to create prostate cancer treatments, yet foreign corporations pay USD 2.11 per kilogramme and sell the resulting pharmaceuticals for USD 405.
About Nagoya Protocol:
- The Nagoya Protocol, which focuses on Accessibility to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits arising from their Use (the Protocol), is a legally binding worldwide agreement that carries out the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) access and benefit-sharing provisions.
- It was accepted by the CBD in Nagoya, Japan, in October 2010 and went into effect on October 12, 2014, 90 days following the deposit of the 50th instrument of ratification.
- It establishes a transparent legal framework for the proper fulfilment of one of the CBD’s three objectives: the fair and equitable distribution of benefits deriving from the use of genetic resources.
What are its advantages?
- It creates a framework that allows researchers to gain access to genetic resources for biotechnology research, development, and other activities in exchange for a fair share of any advantages derived from their use.
- This gives the research and development sector the confidence it needs to invest in biodiversity-related research.
- Indigenous and local communities may benefit from a legal framework that recognises the significance of traditional knowledge connected with genetic resources. India signed the Nagoya Protocol in 2011 and ratified it in October 2012. India ratified the CBD at the 11th Conference of Parties (COP), held in Hyderabad.
About the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):
- The CBD, which now has 196 contracting parties, is the most comprehensive and legally binding international agreement on nature protection and the sustainable use of natural resources.
- It was opened for signatures at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro.
- It has three main objectives:
- The preservation of biological diversity (including genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity).
- The sustainable utilisation of biological diversity.
- The equal distribution of advantages derived from the use of genetic resources.
- Two globally binding agreements were adopted within the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity to help execute the CBD’s objectives.
- The Cartagena Protocol: In 2000, countries adopted the Cartagena Protocol, which governs the cross-border movement of living-modified organisms (LMO) and went into effect in 2003.
- The Nagoya Protocol, enacted in 2010, establishes a legally binding framework for access to genetic resources as well as the fair and equitable distribution of benefits resulting from their utilisation.
Prelims practice questions
Q1) What is/are the importance of the ‘ United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’? (UPSC Prelims-2016)
1) It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive international partnerships.
2) It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its Secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portions of financial resources to these regions.
3) It is committed to a bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating desertification.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Q2) Consider the following statements:
1) Global Environment Facility (GEF) is a financial mechanism to support the objectives of the CBD
2) The Nagoya Protocol addresses issues related to Climate change adaptation
3) CBD aims to achieve a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss by 2030
4) Montreal is the headquarters of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
How many of the above statements are correct?
a) Only one
b) Only two
c) All three
d) All four
Mains practice questions
Q1) Explain the concept of “keystone species” in the context of biodiversity conservation. Provide examples and discuss their significance in maintaining ecosystem stability.
Q2) Reflect on the role of education and awareness in biodiversity conservation. How can environmental education programs contribute to fostering a sense of responsibility and sustainable practices among communities?
I am a content developer and have done my Post Graduation in Political Science. I have given 2 UPSC mains, 1 IB ACIO interview and have cleared UGC NET JRF too.