- Recently India has hosted the Pre-Summit of Tiger Range Countries (TRCs).
- The Tiger Range Countries Summit is scheduled to be held on September 5, 2022 in Vladivostok, Russia.
- The 4th Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation was held in January 2022.
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority of India has also decided to issue guidelines for restoration of tigers which can be used by other tiger range countries.
- Twelve countries of the Tiger/Tiger range participated in the meeting except China and Indonesia.
- The 13 Tiger Range Countries (TRCs) are: India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao PDR (People’s Democratic Republic), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam, China and Indonesia.
- India is committed to bring all possible tiger habitats in the country under the Tiger Reserve Network.
- The aim of the meeting is to finalize the Declaration on Tiger Conservation to be adopted at the summit.
Importance of Tiger Conservation:
Important in regulating ecological processes:
- The tiger is a unique animal that plays an important role in a health ecosystem and its diversity.
- Forests are known to provide ecological services like clean air, water, pollination, temperature regulation etc.
Maintaining a Diet Chain:
- It is an apex predator that is at the top of the food chain and controls wild (mainly large mammal) populations.
- The tiger, therefore, helps maintain a balance between the herbivores and the vegetation on which they feed by hunting herbivores.
Conservation Status of Tiger:
- Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Bill 2021: Schedule 1
- Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): On the verge of extinction.
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix 1
Indian Scenario in Tiger Conservation:
- India has 52 tiger reserves spread over an area of about 75,000 square kilometers in 18 states.
- Globally, India has about 75% of wild tigers.
- India had achieved the target of doubling the number of tigers in the year 2018 itself, four years before the target year 2022.
- Conservation assured to 17 tiger reserves in the country. Tiger Standards (CA|TS) has received international recognition and two tiger reserves (Satyamangalam and Pilibhit) have received the International Tx2 award.
- India has bilateral agreements and MoUs with several tiger range countries and is working closely with Cambodia for technical assistance towards bringing back wild tigers.